# Data Transformations¶

## Normalizing and scaling data¶

The rescale() function provides 8 different scaling options and returns the rescaled data along with the location and scale factors.

Method

Location

Scale Factor

“euclidean”

0

Euclidean length

"mad"

median

Absolute deviation from median

“maxabs"

0

Maximum absolute value

“midrange”

(Max+Min)/2

Range/2

“range”

Minimum

Range

“standardize”

Mean

Standard deviation

“sum”

0

Sum

“ustd”

0

Standard deviation around origin

### Rescaling with a specified scaling method¶

// Create a column vector
x = {   12.5,
18.2,
10.8,
8.3,
15.4,
21.5,
14.6,
16.7 };

// Standardize 'x' and return the location and scaling factors
{ x_s, location_s, scale_factor_s } = rescale(x, "standardize");

// Rescale the x using the median
{ x_m, location_m, scale_factor_m } = rescale(x, "mad");

print "Standardized rescaling:";
print "x_s = " x_s;
print "location_s = " location_s;
print "scale_factor_s = " scale_factor_s;

print "Median rescaling:";
print "x_m = " x_m;
print "location_m = " location_m;
print "scale_factor_m = " scale_factor_m;


After the code above:

Standardized rescaling:
x_s =
-0.53463295
0.81977052
-0.93857785
-1.5326145
0.15444952
1.6038989
-0.035642197
0.46334856

location_s =           14.75
scale_factor_s =        4.21

Median rescaling:
x_m =
-0.87719298
1.1228070
-1.4736842
-2.3508772
0.14035088
2.2807018
-0.14035088
0.59649123

location_m =           15.00
scale_factor_m =        2.85


The rescale() function can also be used with a known location and scale factor to rescale data.

### Rescaling using known location and scaling factors¶

// Additional observations
x2    = { 9.3,
10.9,
11.1,
9.1,
14.6,
18.4,
20.2,
18.5 };

// Rescale matrix above using
// location and scale matrix
// from above
x_s2 = rescale(x2, location_s, scale_factor_s);


After the code above x_s2 is equal to:

  -1.2949998
-0.91481638
-0.86729345
-1.3425227
-0.035642197
0.86729345
1.2949998
0.89105492


The rescale() function can also be used to rescale multiple columns at time.

### Rescaling multiple columns¶

// Create a matrix with 2 columns
x = {   12.5 1088.5,
18.2  879.3,
10.8 1232.0,
8.3 1189.8,
15.4  932.1,
21.5 1009.2,
14.6  656.7,
16.7 1251.5 };

// Standardize 'x' and return the location and scaling factors
{ x_s, location, scale_factor } = rescale(x, "standardize");

print "x_s = " x_s;
print "location = " location;
print "scale_factor = " scale_factor;

x_s =
-0.53463295       0.28751716
0.81977052      -0.73869039
-0.93857785       0.99144060
-1.5326145       0.78443315
0.15444952      -0.47968581
1.6038989      -0.10148025
-0.035642197       -1.8306302
0.46334856        1.0870957

location =            14.750000        1029.8875
scale_factor =        4.2084948        203.85740


## Recoding and reclassifying¶

GAUSS provides a variety of tools for recoding and reclassifying data. These functions can be divided into functions for numeric data and functions for categorical data.

Numeric Functions

Description

Recoding specifier

reclassify()

Replaces specified values of a matrix, array or string array.

User-specified values.

reclassifycuts()

Replaces values of a matrix or array within specified ranges.

User-specified values.

code()

Creates a new matrix based on recoding of an existing numeric vector.

Based on logical expression.

recode()

Recodes the values of an existing vector of numeric data.

Based on logical expression.

substute()

Substitutes new values for old values in a matrix, depending on the outcome of a logical expression.

Based on logical expression.

Categorical Functions

reorderCatLabels()

Changes relative order of categorical variable. This changes the key values associated with the categorical labels.

recodeCatLabels()

Replaces the labels of categorical variables with new labels.

### Recoding and reclassifying non-categorical data¶

Both the code() and recode() procedures can be used to recode data using conditional expressions.

The code() procedure:

• Creates a new matrix which splits existing data into classes.

• Uses N logical expressions to determine N+1 classes.

• Works for vectors only.

#### Example: Coding blood pressure data to create a new (binary) class variable¶

// Blood pressure data
x = { 91,
121,
99,
135,
110,
155 };

// Values for the classes
new_val = { 1, 2 };

/*
** Create a vector containing a 1 for every element
** which is less than 120, or a 0 otherwise
*/
logical = x .<  120;

/*
** Create a new vector which contains the class
** assignment for each element in 'x'
*/
x_class = code(logical, new_val);


The code above generates a new vector x_class which splits the original data into two classes based on whether x is less than 120.

x = 91   logical =  1   x_class = 1
121              0             2
99              1             1
135              0             2
110              1             1
155              0             2


#### Example: Coding blood pressure data to create a new multi-class variable¶

// Blood pressure data
x = { 91,
121,
99,
135,
110,
155 };

// Values for the classes
new_val = { 1,
2,
3 };

// Create a vector containing a 1 for every element
// which is less than 100, or a 0 otherwise
logical_1 = x .<= 100;

// Create a vector containing a 1 for every element
// which is between 100 and 120, or a 0 otherwise
logical_2 = x .> 100 .and x .<=  120;

// Form a 2 column logical vector using
// horizontal concatenation
logical = logical_1 ~ logical_2;

// Create a new vector which contains the class
// assignment for each element in 'x'
x_class = code(logical, new_val);


Now x_class splits the original data into three classes based on whether x is less than or equal to 100, falls between 100 and 120, or is greater 120.

x =  91    logical = 1 0     x_class = 1
121              0 0               3
99              1 0               1
135              0 0               3
110              0 1               2
155              0 0               3


Note

The setColLabels() function can be used to specify x_class as a categorical variable and to assign labels to the classes.

### Recoding values of an existing vector¶

The recode() procedure :

• Replaces specific values of an existing vector with new values.

• Uses a logical expression to determine where and how to replace values.

• Is valid for vectors.

Some notes to remember about recode():

• There should be no more than a single 1 in any row of logical expression matrix.

• For any given row of a data matrix and logical expression matrix, if a column of the logical expression is 1, the corresponding replacement values with replace the original element of the data matrix.

• If every column of logical expression matrix contains a 0, the original value of the data matrix will be unchanged.

#### Example: Recoding numeric values based on ranges¶

x = { 20,
45,
32,
63,
29 };

// Create 4 column vectors with a 1 where the statement
// evaluates as 'true'

// Check if 20 < x <= 30
e1 = (20 .lt x) .and (x .le 30);

// Check if 30 < x <= 40
e2 = (30 .lt x) .and (x .le 40);

// Check if 40 < x <= 50
e3 = (40 .lt x) .and (x .le 50);

// Check if 50 < x <= 60
e4 = (50 .lt x) .and (x .le 60);

// Horizontally concatenate the column vectors into a 5x4
// matrix
logical = e1~e2~e3~e4;

v = { 1.2,
2.4,
3.1,
4.6 };

// Replace elements of 'x' with elements from 'v' based upon
// the 0's and 1's in 'e'
x_new = recode(x, logical, v);


Note that in this example x_new is as follows:

          0   0   0   0
0   0   1   0
logical = 0   1   0   0
0   0   0   0
1   0   0   0

// Since the third column of the second row of 'e' is equal
// to 1, the second row of 'y' is set equal to the third
// element of 'v', etc.
20.000000
3.1000000
x_new = 2.4000000
63.000000
1.2000000


### Reclassifying data¶

The reclassify() and reclassifyCuts() procedures can be used to reclassify existing values to new values.

The reclassify() procedure:

• Replaces values in a from input with values specified in a to input.

• Works for matrices, arrays, and string arrays.

• Can be used to reclassify matrices to string arrays and vice versa.

Note

The reclassify() function can reclassify matrices to string arrays but does not create a dataframe. To create a dataframe with a string labels from an existing matrix see asDF().

#### Example: Change instances of 1, 2 and 3 to ‘low’, ‘medium’ and ‘high’.¶

// Vector to be changed
x = { 2,
3,
2,
1,
2,
3 };

from = { 1,
2,
3 };

// Create a 3x1 string array using
// string vertical concatenation operator
to = "low" $| "medium"$| "high";

x_new = reclassify(x, from, to);
print x_new;


After the code above, x_new is equal to:

medium
high
medium
low
medium
high


In this case, if the number of specified strings in to is less than the number of unique values in x, the unmapped values will be converted directly into strings.

// Vector to be changed
x = { 2,
3,
2,
1,
2,
3 };

from = { 1,
2};

// Create a 3x1 string array using
// string vertical concatenation operator
to = "low" $| "medium"; x_new = reclassify(x, from, to); print x_new;  Now x_new is medium 3 medium low medium 3  #### Example: Change instances of tea types: ‘black’, ‘green’, ‘oolong’ to 9.95, 11.95 and 10.50, respectively.¶ string orders = { "green", "green", "oolong", "green", "green", "green", "black" }; string tea_types = { "black", "green", "oolong" }; price = { 9.95, 11.95, 10.50 }; order_prices = reclassify(orders, tea_types, price); print order_prices;  The vector order_prices is equal to: 11.95 11.95 10.50 11.95 11.95 11.95 9.95  In this case, if the number of specified values in to is less than the number of unique strings in x, unmapped strings will be reclassified as missings: string orders = { "green", "green", "oolong", "green", "green", "green", "black" }; string tea_types = { "black", "green" }; price = { 9.95, 11.95 }; order_prices = reclassify(orders, tea_types, price); print order_prices;  Now order_prices is: 11.950000 11.950000 . 11.950000 11.950000 11.950000 9.9500000  The reclassifyCuts() procedure: • Splits the data in x into classes based on specified cutoff values. • Works for matrices and arrays. • Cutoff points can be used to define the right endpoint of an interval or the starting points of the next interval. The default is to use the cutoff points as starting points of the next interval. #### Example: Basic sequence¶ // Create column vector to place in categories x = { 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 }; // Cut points for data in 'x' cut_pts = { 0.2, 0.5 }; // Class 0: x <= 0.2 // Class 1: 0.2 < x <= 0.5 // Class 2: 0.5 < x r_open = reclassifyCuts(x, cut_pts); // Class 0: x < 0.2 // Class 1: 0.2 <= x < 0.5 // Class 2: 0.5 <= x r_closed = reclassifyCuts(x, cut_pts, 1); print "x = " x; print; print "r_open = " r_open; print; print "r_closed = " r_closed; print; print "cut_pts = " cut_pts;  This results in: x = 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 r_open = 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 r_closed = 0.00 0.00 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 cut_pts = 0.20 0.50  #### Example: Classifying blood pressure data¶ // Create a column of blood pressure data bp = { 87, 154, 127, 112, 159, 90, 151, 109, 125, 107 }; // Assign cut points cut_pts = { 120, 140 }; // Create categorical variable bp_category = reclassifyCuts(bp, cut_pts); print "bp = " bp; print; print "bp_category = " bp_category; print; print "cut_pts = " cut_pts;  This splits the data in bp into three categories: those that fall below 120, those that greater than or equal to 120 but less than 140, and those that are greater than or equal to 140:  87 154 127 112 bp = 159 90 151 109 125 107 0 2 1 0 bp_category = 2 0 2 0 1 0 cut_pts = 120 140  ### Recoding categorical data¶ The recodeCatLabels() can be use to change the labels on categorical variables in a dataframe. #### Example: Recoding categories in yarn dataset¶ // Load data fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/yarn.xlsx"); yarn = loadd(fname, "cat(yarn_length) + cat(amplitude) + cat(load) + cycles"); // Get column labels for yarn_length { labels, keyvalues } = getColLabels(yarn, "yarn_length"); // Print results sprintf("%11s", "Key"$~"Labels");
sprintf("%10.0f %10s", keyvalues, labels);

// Recode yarn_length variable from
// 'low', 'medium', and 'high'
//  to 'sm', 'md', 'lg'
yarn_recoded = recodecatlabels(yarn, "low"$|"med"$|"high", "sm"$|"md"$|"lg", "yarn_length");

// Get column labels for yarn_length
{ labels, keyvalues } = getColLabels(yarn_recoded, "yarn_length");

// Print results
print "Yarn recoded labels";

sprintf("%11s", "Key"$~"Labels"); sprintf("%10.0f %10s", keyvalues, labels);  This prints the following: Yarn labels Key Labels 0 high 1 low 2 med Yarn recoded labels Key Labels 0 lg 1 sm 2 md  ### Reordering categorical data¶ The reorderCatLabels() can be use to change the key values associated with categorical labels. // Load data fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/yarn.xlsx"); yarn = loadd(fname, "cat(yarn_length) + cat(amplitude) + cat(load) + cycles"); // Get column labels for yarn_length { labels, keyvalues } = getColLabels(yarn, "yarn_length"); // Print results print "Yarn labels"; sprintf("%11s", "Key"$~"Labels");
sprintf("%10.0f %10s", keyvalues, labels);

// Order labels
yarn_reordered = reordercatlabels(yarn, "med"$|"high"$|"low", "yarn_length");

// Get column labels for yarn_length
{ labels, keyvalues } = getColLabels(yarn_reordered, "yarn_length");

// Print results
print "Reordered yarn labels";

sprintf("%11s", "Key"$~"Labels"); sprintf("%10.0f %10s", keyvalues, labels);  This prints the following: Yarn labels Key Labels 0 high 1 low 2 med Reordered yarn labels Key Labels 0 med 1 high 2 low  ## Substituting values¶ The substute() function replaces values in a matrix based on the outcome of a logical expression. ### Example: Setting very small values to zero¶ // Create example vector x = { 3.8e-21, 1.0, 3.5, 2.7e-18, 0.5, 3.0, 1.1e-16, 0.5, 2.2, 4.0 }; // Substitute all values less than 2.2e-16 with a zero x_new = substute(x, x .< 2.25e-16, 0);  This results in x_new equal to: 0.00000000 1.0000000 3.5000000 0.00000000 0.50000000 3.0000000 0.00000000 0.50000000 2.2000000 4.0000000  ## Time series transformations¶ While data lags, leads, differences and recursive terms can always be computed using matrix operations, GAUSS also includes built-in tools for these transformations. Function Description Format lag1() Lags a matrix by one time period for time series analysis. y = lag1(x) lagn() Lags or leads a matrix a specified number of time periods. Use negative input t to indicate leads. y = lagn(x, t) lagTrim() Lags or leads a matrix a specified number of time periods and removes the incomplete rows. Use negative input t to indicate leads. y = lagTrim(y, t) shiftc() Shifts the columns of a matrix, or dataframe. y = shiftc(x, s, fill) recserar() Computes a vector of autoregressive recursive series. y = recserar(x, y0, rho) recserVAR() Computes a vector autoregressive recursive (VAR) series. y = recserVAR(x, y0, pi_) ### Lagging data with the lagn or lag1 procedures¶ The lagn() and lag1() procedures are used to lag data without removing or replacing the missing values. These procedures accepts M x T data matrices, x, and the lagn() and procedure accepts an ExE conformable vector of lags. The ExE conformability requirement means that lagn() can be used to compute: • The same lag of every column of a data matrix. • Specific lags for each column of a data matrix. • Multiple lags of a single vector of data. Because missing values are not removed by the lagn() and lag1() procedures, the returns from these procedures will always have the same number of rows as the input, x. #### Computing a single lag of a matrix with lagn¶ In this example the PPI matrix contains two variables: • A date column named, date • Observed PPI data column named, PPIACO To compute the same number of lags of each column of the data, a scalar lag input, t can be used: // Load PPIACO series // from FRED database PPI = fred_load("PPIACO"); // Lag the PPI data // using lagn PPI_lag_1 = lagn(PPI, 1); // Preview PPI_lag_1 data head(PPI_lag_1);  Our preview shows that the first element of the PPI_lag vector is a missing value:  date PPIACO . . 1913-01-01 12.100000 1913-02-01 12.000000 1913-03-01 12.000000 1913-04-01 12.000000  #### Computing a different lags of each column of a matrix with lagn¶ To compute different lags of each column of data at the same time, a vector input of lags specifying a separate lag for each column of data can be used. Note that the lag vector must have the same number of elements as the number of columns in the matrix being lagged: // Load multiple series // from FRED data = fred_load("PPIACO + T10Y2Y"); // Lags vectors lags = 1|2; // Compute Lags data_lag_12 = lagn(data["PPIACO" "T10Y2Y"], lags); // Preview the lagged data head(data_lag_12)  This computes the first lag of the PPIACO variable and the second lag of the T10Y2Y series: #### Computing a different lags of vector of data using lagn¶ // Load PPIACO series // from FRED database PPI = fred_load("PPIACO"); // Specify lags vector lags = 1|2|3; // Lag just the observations // of the PPI data // using lagn PPI_lag_123 = lagn(PPI[., "PPIACO"], lags); // Preview PPI_lag_1 data head(PPI_lag_123);  This computes the first, second, and third lag of the PPIACO variable. Note that in this case, new variables names, PPIACO_2 and PPIACO_3 variables are created for first and second columns.  PPIACO PPIACO_2 PPIACO_3 . . . 12.100000 . . 12.000000 12.100000 . 12.000000 12.000000 12.100000 12.000000 12.000000 12.000000  ### Lagging data with the lagTrim procedure¶ The lagTrim() procedure removes resulting missing values from lagging the data. Like the lagn() procedure, the lagTrim() procedure accepts a M x T data matrices, x, and an ExE conformable vector of lags. The return from the lagTrim() procedure will have a number of rows equal to the number of rows of the input x minus the maximum number of lags specified in t. #### Computing multiple lags without missing values¶ // Create file name with full path fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/beef_prices.csv"); // Load all observations of all variables beef = loadd(fname); // Create lag vector lags = 1|2|3; // Compute lags using lagTrim beef_lagTrim = lagTrim(beef[., 2], lags); // Preview lagged data head(beef_lagTrim); // Compare number of rows print "Rows in original data:"; rows(beef); print "Rows in lagged data:"; rows(beef_lagTrim);  The beef_lagTrim matrix has 282 rows, 3 less than the input data beef: 111.11000 114.49000 116.64000 108.17000 111.11000 114.49000 107.76000 108.17000 111.11000 105.90000 107.76000 108.17000 106.43000 105.90000 107.76000 Rows in original data: 285.00000 Rows in lagged data: 282.00000  ### Shifting data with the shiftc procedure¶ The shiftc() procedure shifts columns of a data matrix and requires three inputs: • A N x K matrix of data. • A scalar or 1 x N input specifying the magnitude of the shift. • A scalar or 1 x N input specifying the value to fill in the shifted rows. The return from the shiftc() procedure will have a number of rows equal to the number of rows of the data input. The shiftc() procedure can be used to fill the shifted rows with values other than missing values. #### Shifting columns of a data matrix¶  // Create file name with full path fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/beef_prices.csv"); // Load all observations of all variables beef = loadd(fname); // Trim data to make smaller example set beef = beef[1:5,.]; // Shift all columns of beef forward 2 rows // filling the extra rows with a missing value beef_lag = shiftc(beef, 2, miss());  After the above code: beef_lag = date beef_price . . . . 199201 116.64000 199202 114.49000 199203 111.11000  Using the beef dataframe from the first example: // Shift all columns of beef forward 2 rows // filling the extra rows with a missing value beef_lag_0 = shiftc(beef, 2, 0);  After the above code: beef_lag_0 = date beef_price 0 0 0 0 199201 116.64000 199202 114.49000 199203 111.11000  ## Panel data transformations¶ The dfLonger() and dfWider() functions provide intuitive and comprehensive tools for converting between long-form and wide-form panel data. Both procedures work with g ### Reshaping to long-form data¶ The dfLonger() procedure transform wide-form GAUSS dataframes to long-form GAUSS dataframes. Setting up the dfLonger() procedure requires four basic steps: 1. Identify the variables contained in the wide-form dataset. 2. Identify the columns to convert. 3. Name the new columns created in the long-form data for storing names. 4. Name the new columns created in the long-form data for storing values. #### Basic long-form pivoting¶ Some wide-form datasets are easy to convert and can be done using the default settings. Consider the data in the tiny_car_panel.csv file. // Load data file_name = getGAUSSHome("examples/tiny_car_panel.csv"); df_wide = loadd(file_name); print df_wide;  This function is a wide-form panel dataset:  Years Cars_compact Cars_truck Cars_SUV 1973-01-01 5.0000000 . 3.0000000 1974-01-01 2.0000000 1.0000000 9.0000000  This dataset contains counts of different car types across different years. In terms of our four step process: 1. The variable contained in the wide-form dataset is car-types count. 2. The columns to convert are Cars_compact, Cars_trucks, and Cars_SUV. 3. We will create a Car Class column to store car type names. 4. We will create a counts column to store counts of car types. // Get all column names and remove the first column name, 'Years' columns = getcolnames(df_wide); columns = trimr(columns, 1, 0); // Specify the new column to store names names_to = "Class"; // Specify the new column to store values values_to = "Count"; // Convert data using 'dfLonger' df_long = dfLonger(df_wide, columns, names_to, values_to); print df_long;  The df_long dataframe now contains the stacked panel data, with three variables, Years, Class, and Count.  Years Class Count 1973-01-01 Cars_compact 5.0000000 1973-01-01 Cars_truck . 1973-01-01 Cars_SUV 3.0000000 1974-01-01 Cars_compact 2.0000000 1974-01-01 Cars_truck 1.0000000 1974-01-01 Cars_SUV 9.0000000  #### Advanced long-form pivoting¶ The optional pivotControl structure allows you to control pivoting specifications using the following members: Member Purpose names_prefix A string input which specifies which characters, if any, should be stripped from the front of the wide variable names before they are assigned to a long column. names_sep_split A string input which specifies which characters, if any, mark where the names_to names should be broken up. names_pattern_split A string input containing a regular expression specifying group(s) in names_to names which should be broken up. names_types A string input specifying data types for the names_to variable. values_drop_missing Scalar, is set to 1 all rows with missing values will be removed. Consider a more advanced case using the olympic_vault_wide.csv data file. // Load the data df_wide = loadd(getGAUSSHome("examples/olympic_vault_wide.csv")); print df_wide;  This wide dataset looks like:  Country vault_2012_f vault_2012_m vault_2016_f vault_2016_m United States 48.100000 46.600000 46.900000 45.900000 Russia 46.400000 46.900000 45.700000 46.000000 China 44.300000 48.300000 44.300000 45.000000  In terms of the four-step pivoting process: 1. The variable contained in the wide-form dataframe is scores. 2. The columns to convert are all columns with the exception of the first column. 3. The names of the columns in the wide data contain information about the event, the year, and the sex of the athlete. 4. We will create a scores column to store the values in the long-form dataframe. Because of the more advanced structure of the names in the wide-form dataframe, a pivotControl structure should be used. // Get the list of variables to pivot // and remove the first column name, 'Country' columns = getcolnames(df_wide); columns = trimr(columns, 1, 0); // Declare 'pctl' to be a pivotControl structure // and fill with default settings struct pivotControl pctl; pctl = pivotControlCreate(); // Split the variable names from 'columns', i.e. vault_2012_f, etc // every time an underscore is encountered pctl.names_sep_split = "_"; // Set variable names for the new columns names_to = "event"$| "year" \$| "gender";

// Set name of value column
values_to = "score";

// Convert 'year' to be a date variable.
pctl.names_types = { "year" "date" };

df_long = dfLonger(df_wide, columns, names_to, values_to, pctl);
print df_long;


The df_long dataframe looks like:

      Country            event             year           gender            score
United States            vault             2012                f        48.100000
United States            vault             2012                m        46.600000
United States            vault             2016                f        46.900000
United States            vault             2016                m        45.900000
Russia            vault             2012                f        46.400000
Russia            vault             2012                m        46.900000
Russia            vault             2016                f        45.700000
Russia            vault             2016                m        46.000000
China            vault             2012                f        44.300000
China            vault             2012                m        48.300000
China            vault             2016                f        44.300000
China            vault             2016                m        45.000000


### Reshaping to wide-form data¶

The dfWider() procedure transform long-form GAUSS dataframes to wide-form GAUSS dataframes. Setting up the dfWider() procedure requires four basic steps: 1. Identifying the columns to pull the new wide-form column names from. 2. Identifying the columns to pull the new wide-form column values from.

#### Basic wide-form pivoting¶

Many long-form datasets can be converted to wide-form panels using the default dfWider() functionality.

Consider the long-form data stored in the eagle_nests_long.csv data file:

// Load long form data
fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/eagle_nests_long.csv");

print df_long;


The df_long dataframe looks like:

         region                 year            num_nests
Pacific                 2007               1039.0
Pacific                 2009               2587.0
Southwest                 2007                 51.0
Southwest                 2009                176.0
Rocky Mountains                 2007                200.0
Rocky Mountains                 2009                338.0


The values in the num_nests column and the names in the year column can be used to convert to a wide-form panel.

// Specify columns to pull new column names from
names_from = "year";

// Specify columns to pull new column values from
values_from = "num_nests";

// Convert to wide form
df_wide = dfWider(df_long, names_from, values_from);

print df_wide;


The df_wide dataframe looks like:

         region                 2007                 2009
Pacific               1039.0               2587.0
Rocky Mountains                200.0                338.0
Southwest                 51.0                176.0


The optional pivotControl structure includes an additional members that are useful in more complex cases of pivoting from wide-form to long-form.

Member

Purpose

names_prefix

A string input which specifies which characters, if any, should be stripped from the front of the wide variable names before they are assigned to a long column.

names_sep_combine

String, the characters, if any, that should be added between the tokens when creating the new variable names. Can only be used if the names_from input contains multiple variable names

id_col

String array, containing the names of the variables that should be used to determine a unique observation.

Consider the data used in the previous example, but add with an additional variable, report_id.

// Create new report_id variable
report_id = {
61178,
73511,
26219,
14948,
67679,
71635
};

// Add report_id to the front of df_long
df_long = asdf(report_id, "report_id") ~ df_long;
print df_long;


Now the df_long dataframe looks like:

report_id          region            year       num_nests
61178         Pacific            2007            1039
73511         Pacific            2009            2587
26219       Southwest            2007              51
14948       Southwest            2009             176
67679 Rocky Mountains            2007             200
71635 Rocky Mountains            2009             338


By default, dfWider() will use all variables that are not in either names_from or values_from to uniquely identify the observations.

// Convert to long-form panel using defaults
print dfWider(df_long, "year", "num_nests");

report_id          region            2007            2009
14948       Southwest               .             176
26219       Southwest              51               .
61178         Pacific            1039               .
67679 Rocky Mountains             200               .
71635 Rocky Mountains               .             338
73511         Pacific               .            2587


The pivotControl structure can be used to tell dfWider() to only use the region variable to uniquely identify the observations.

// Declare 'pctl' to be a pivotControl structure
// and fill with default settings
struct pivotControl pctl;
pctl = pivotControlCreate();

// Specify region as id col
pctl.id_cols = "region";

// Pivot data
print dfWider(df_long, "year", "num_nests", pctl);

         region            2007            2009
Pacific            1039            2587
Rocky Mountains             200             338
Southwest              51             176


## Dummy variables¶

### Automatic treatment of categorical variables in estimation¶

Categorical variables in dataframes will automatically be treated as dummy variables in GAUSS estimation routines. This means no extra steps are necessary to include categorical variables in regression.

#### Example: Include a categorical variable in OLS¶

// Load data
fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/auto2.dta");

// Include the rep78
// categorical variable in
// ols estimation
call olsmt(fname, "price ~ mpg + rep78");


The categorical variable rep78 will automatically be included in the OLS regression as a dummy variable with the base case excluded from the regression. In addition, the category labels will be displayed in the printed output table.

Standard                                                  Prob   Standardized  Cor with
Variable             Estimate      Error      t-value     >|t|     Estimate    Dep Var
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONSTANT                10450     2251.04     4.64229     0.000       ---         ---
mpg                  -280.261     61.5767    -4.55142     0.000   -0.564519   -0.455949
rep78: Fair           877.635     2063.28    0.425358     0.672   0.0971824  -0.0223477
rep78: Average        1425.66     1905.44    0.748204     0.457     0.24444   0.0859051
rep78: Good           1693.84     1942.67    0.871914     0.387    0.257252   -0.015317
rep78: Excellent      3131.98     2041.05      1.5345     0.130    0.396546   -0.035102


The categories of rep78, "Fair", "Average", "Good", and "Excellent", are included as dummy variables in the regression. The "Poor" category is excluded from the regression, as it is the base case.

#### Example: Include a categorical variable in GLM estimation¶

// Load data
fname = getGAUSSHome("examples/auto2.dta");

// Loadd data and remove missing values
data = packr(loadd(fname, "price + mpg + rep78"));

// Include the rep78
// categorical variable in
// linear regression using glm
call glm(data, "price ~ mpg + rep78", "normal");

Standard                                                                        Prob
Variable                 Estimate            Error          t-value             >|t|
----------------     ------------     ------------     ------------     ------------
CONSTANT                    10450             2251           4.6423         < 0.0001
mpg                       -280.26           61.577          -4.5514         < 0.0001
rep78: Fair                877.63           2063.3          0.42536         0.672025
rep78: Average             1425.7           1905.4           0.7482         0.457121
rep78: Good                1693.8           1942.7          0.87191         0.386566
rep78: Excellent             3132             2041           1.5345         0.129915


### Generating dummy variables outside of estimation¶

Outside of estimation, dummy variables can be created using a number of procedures:

Functions

Description

design()

Creates dummy variables from discrete data that is split into classes.

dummybr()

Creates dummy variables from continuous data based on break points. The highest (rightmost) category is bounded on the right.

dummydn()

Creates dummy variables from continuous data based on break points. The highest (rightmost) category is unbounded on the right, and a specified column of dummies is dropped.

dummy()

Creates dummy variables from continuous data based on break points. The highest (rightmost) category is unbounded on the right.

#### Example: Create dummy variables based on BP classes¶

This example builds on an earlier example, in which BP data was split into 3 classes using reclassify().

// Classified BP data
bp_class = { 1,
3,
1,
3,
2,
3 };

// Create matrix of dummy
// variables using design
dv_bp_classes = design(bp_class);


After this code dv_bp_classes is equal to:

dv_bp_classes;

1      0      0
0      0      1
1      0      0
0      0      1
0      1      0
0      0      1


#### Example: Create dummy variables from continuous BP data¶

The dummybr() variable can be used to generate dummy variables from the ranges of original BP data.

// Create a column of blood pressure data
bp = { 91,
121,
99,
135,
110,
155 };

// Create breakpoints
v = { 100, 120 };

// Create dummy variables
dv_bp = dummy(bp, v);


Note that dv_bp is the same as dv_bp_classes from the first example:

1      0      0
0      0      1
1      0      0
0      0      1
0      1      0
0      0      1


#### Example: Create dummy variables from continuous BP data and drop first column¶

The dummydn() variable can be used to generate dummy variables from the ranges of original BP data.

// Create a column of blood pressure data
bp = { 91,
121,
99,
135,
110,
155 };

// Create breakpoints
v = { 100, 120 };

// Create dummy variables
dv_bp_drop = dummydn(bp, v, 1);


Now the dv_bp_drop matrix is the same as the second and third columns of dv_bp and dv_bp_classes:

0      0
0      1
0      0
0      1
1      0
0      1
`