# fopen¶

Opens a file.

## Format¶

fh = fopen(filename, omode)
Parameters
• filename (string) – name of file to open, can contain a path specification.

• omode (string) – file I/O mode. (See Remarks, below.)

Returns

fh (scalar) – file handle.

## Portability¶

Linux/macOS

Carriage return-linefeed conversion for files opened in text mode is unnecessary, because in Linux/macOS a newline is simply a linefeed.

## Remarks¶

omode is a sequence of characters that specify the mode in which to open the file. The first character must be one of:

 r Open an existing file for reading. If the file does not exist, fopen() fails. w Open or create a file for writing. If the file already exists, its current contents will be destroyed. a Open or create a file for appending. All output is appended to the end of the file.

To this can be appended a + and/or a b. The + indicates the file is to opened for reading and writing, or update, as follows:

 r+ Open an existing file for update. You can read from or write to any location in the file. If the file does not exist, fopen() fails. w+ Open or create a file for update. You can read from or write to any location in the file. If the file already exists, its current contents will be destroyed. a+ Open or create a file for update. You can read from any location in the file, but all output will be appended to the end of the file.

Finally, the b indicates whether the file is to be opened in text or binary mode. If the file is opened in binary mode, the contents of the file are read verbatim; likewise, anything output to the file is written verbatim.

In text mode (the default), carriage return-linefeed sequences are converted on input to linefeeds, or newlines. Likewise on output, newlines are converted to carriage return-linefeeds. Also in text mode, if a Ctrl+Z (char 26) is encountered during a read, it is interpreted as an end-of-file character, and reading ceases. In binary mode, Ctrl+Z is read in uninterpreted.

The order of + and b is not significant; rb+ and r+b mean the same thing.

You can both read from and write to a file opened for update. However, before switching from one to the other, you must make an fseek() or fflush() call, to flush the file’s buffer.

If fopen() fails, it returns a 0.

Use close() and closeall to close files opened with fopen().