Computes the natural log of all elements of x.


y = ln(x)
Parameters:x (NxK matrix or N-dimensional array) – data
Returns:y (NxK matrix or N-dimensional array) – containing the natural log values of the elements of x.


y = ln(16);
y = 2.7725887


ln() is defined for \(x ≠ 0\).

If x is negative, complex results are returned.

You can turn the generation of complex numbers for negative inputs on or off in the GAUSS configuration file, and with the sysstate() function, case 8. If you turn it off, ln() will generate an error for negative inputs.

If x is already complex, the complex number state doesn’t matter; ln() will compute a complex result.

x can be any expression that returns a matrix.

See also

Functions log()